Dr. Knoll’s work in India has focused on assessing and addressing the burden of pneumococcal disease in India.

Efforts have included estimating the number of pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis cases and deaths overall and by state since the year 2000. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was recently introduced into the immunization program of several high burden states and recent efforts have included assessing its impact on vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, chest x-ray confirmed pneumonia, and severity of disease in hospitalized pneumonia cases and on vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in healthy children in the community.